Important changes in tobacco-use legislation are currently taking place. Physicians, patients, and politicians have never been more interested and involved in the effects of smoking, not only in terms of healthcare but also in terms of potential long-term socioeconomic consequences of smoking and nicotine dependence. Dr. Lion Shahab, research associate at CRUK Health Behaviour Unit, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK, deeply analyzes the epidemiologic aspects of this addiction. First, he lets the reader understand the background of tobacco use, describing some historical aspects, the rise of manufactured cigarettes, and the neurophysiologic mechanism involved in nicotine dependence. Subsequently, the author tackles the epidemiologic aspects of smoking and explores the major characteristics related to smoking prevalence, including changes that have occurred over the last century, differences in prevalence by sociodemographic factors (gender, age, socioeconomic status), and differences by country and predicted changes by country. Third, Dr. Shahab discusses the cost of smoking and remarks on its important effects on health (in smokers and nonsmokers) and the economy, highlighting the benefits of smoking cessation. Next, the author reviews the current status of tobacco control measures and suggests interesting strategies to reduce tobacco consumption and increase smoking cessation. These strategies cover legislation and political fields, research and public awareness, and the scope of optimal cessation programs. To conclude this interesting chapter, Dr. Shahab mentions future challenges and trends for tobacco control and addresses the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, an initiative that was created under the auspices of the World Health Organization and became the world’s first public health treaty.